Cardialen, Inc. was formed in 2008 to develop and commercialize pain-free cardioversion therapy, with a primary focus on atrial fibrillation (AF). The company is developing implantable low-energy (low voltage) pain-free atrial cardioverters to help address the major unmet needs of this condition. AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia worldwide and has been recently estimated to affect over 3.0 million people in the United States. AF, unlike ventricular fibrillation (VF), is not immediately life threatening. However, AF greatly increases the risk of stroke and premature death, impairs quality of life and generates high healthcare costs. Current therapies (drugs, external cardioversion, catheter ablation and surgery of various types) do not fully meet AF patient needs.